Browse through our Frequently Asked Questions for further information:

  • ­ 1

    What does time-sampling mean?

    Time sampling is a way to collect information by recording what happens at different time intervals. The EduSnap Classroom Observation Measure is a minute-by-minute view of how children experience their classrooms. During data collection users observe a target child for 30 seconds then spend a 30 second coding period to record the EduSnap codes that were present during the observation period. The classroom observation is a continuous cycle of 30 seconds of observation followed by 30 seconds of coding. At the end of the observation users receive graphs and tables describing how children spent their time throughout the observation.

  • ­ 2

    What is EduSnap?

    EduSnap is a time-sampling observation measure that quantifies the activities, interactions and learning and teaching approaches children experience in P-5 classrooms. EduSnap Data are presented in meaningful, immediate and easy to read graphs and tables. The EduSnap User Guide includes the history of the EduSnap, rationale and research support for the codes and the EduSnap Codebook, as well as guidance for providing EduSnap Data feedback to teachers and schools in an effective, non-evaluative manner in order to promote collaboration and drive change.

  • ­ 3

    Are children or teachers observed during the EduSnap Observation?

    Teachers are not observed directly, in that they are not the target of the observation. They are observed with regard to how they interact with or provide experiences to the target children. For example, if a target child is at a small group activity led by the teacher, the EduSnap codes the child is experiencing will likely include content given by the teacher and how the teacher is delivering that content.

  • ­ 4

    What is the ideal amount of time for each code?

    Early education research does not support ideal thresholds of time for exposure to content and activities in classrooms. However, research does suggest that increased exposure to certain activity settings, content areas, and learning and teaching approaches increase academic achievement and provide better school experiences for young learners. For example, research suggests small group settings contribute to academic development (Fien et al, 2011; Connor, Morrison, & Slominski, 2006); effective classroom management (Logue, 2006); and teacher-child interactions such as increased comments and questions per child (Phillips and Twardosz, 2003). Frequency of exposure to learning opportunities lead to gains in academic achievement (Palardy & Rumberger,; Connor, Morrison, & Slominski, 2006; Lavy; Downer & Pianta). Additionally, a classroom emphasis on oral language development has been identified as one of the premier instructional strategies for ensuring the success of children, especially those in low socioeconomic communities (Mason & Gallaway, 2012). Often children come to school with strong oral language but their development is interrupted, rather than promoted, by an overabundance of teacher dominance. EduSnap helps users identify how classroom practice contributes to how students experience the classroom and what those experiences mean for academic and social achievement and guides users to initiate changes in classroom practice.

  • ­ 5

    Graph calculations are given in percentage of time, how does that translate to minutes?

    For a full day observation, approximately 6 ½ hours (390 minutes), each percent is equal to 4 minutes a day.


    For a 2 hour observation (120 minutes) each percentage point is equal to 1.2 minutes and should be described for just that 2 hour block (i.e. literacy or math block)


  • ­ 6

    How many people can use one license?

    Unlimited users can register on each license. However, each license can only be used at one time by one user. For example, user A and user B cannot simultaneously collect data using the same license, but user A could collect data on day 1 and user B could collect data on day 2. All users collecting data should be trained and pass reliability testing prior to collecting data.

  • ­ 7

    How long do EduSnap classroom observations last?

    Classroom observations can be tailored to fit the needs of the user, but are typically full-day 6 ½ hour long observations or 2 hour long observations. Two hour observations are ideal for users interested in observing a literacy or math block. Full day observations give the most accurate picture of child experience throughout the school day. However, shorter observations may be ideal for observing early morning transitions or as a walkthrough.

  • ­ 8

    What training is required to use the EduSnap Classroom Observation Measure?

    We provide a three-day training in order for users to learn how to accurately and reliably collect data using the EduSnap Classroom Observation Measure. Prior to the training days, each trainee is given access to the codebook, video library, and pre-training homework assignments. At the completion of training, participants will be given access to reliability testing.

  • ­ 9

    How many codes can be coded during one coding period?

    The EduSnap Codebook has 25 codes, plus an additional “Can’t Watch” code should the target child be unavailable during the observation period. The EduSnap Codebook is divided into four Sections: Activity Setting, Content Areas, Student Learning Approaches, Teaching Approaches.


    Activity Setting has seven codes of which only one can be coded during a coding period.

    Content Areas has fourteen codes and, though unlikely, it is possible to code all content codes during a coding period.

    Student Learning Approaches has two codes and both may be coded together.

    Teaching Approaches has two codes and they cannot be coded together, only one may be coded per coding period.


    So, it is possible for 18 (1 Activity Setting, 14 Content Areas, 2 Student Learning Approaches, 1 Teaching Approaches) of the 25 codes to be coded during one coding period.


    The minimum number of codes allowed during one coding cycle is one. An Activity Setting must be coded in order to advance the application to the next observation period.

  • ­ 10

    Is it better to have more codes or fewer codes during one coding period?

    It depends on what is being observed, but in general, the more codes coded during one coding period means richer, more integrated classroom experiences for children. For example, if Transitions is coded alone this likely means children were involved in moving from one location to another or waiting for materials to be passed out without any learning and interaction taking place. If Transitions is also coded with Oral Language, Science, Operations and Algebra, and Scaffolds, a teacher used the necessary Transition as a teaching opportunity to encourage language development focused on science and algebraic thinking.

  • ­ 11

    Can I use the EduSnap Classroom Observation Measure to observe just one child?

    Yes, but when describing the data you would have to be clear that the experiences are not representative of the entire classroom, they are only relevant to that single child.

  • ­ 12

    How are 4 children representative of the entire classroom?

    There are 3 common methods to select and code children for an observation. When the first method, Randomization, is selected, the 4 selected children serve as proxies for all of the children in the class. By using this method, users increase the likelihood that children are observed in a variety of experiences that are most representative for all children in the classroom.

  • ­ 13

    What happens if one of the 4 children I’m observing leaves for a pull out service or for a doctor’s appointment?

    It depends on the purpose of your observation. If you are observing as part of a research study using method 1, Randomization, and anticipate your target child returning to the classroom, then you may want to select “Can’t Watch” during the coding period until this child returns and you can continue observing him/her. If you are a literacy coach watching a 2-hour observation and one of your children is not going to return within a few minutes, you may want to immediately replace that child with another in order to collect the most amount of data possible during the 2 hour observation.

  • ­ 14

    Is the EduSnap a teacher evaluation?

    Snapshot, Inc. promotes effective instructional practices across the P-5 spectrum by using data to promote in-depth discussions about instructional decisions and the impact they have on students they serve. EduSnap is not designed to evaluate teachers as it does not link data to scores or ideal amounts of time for each code. It is intended to describe classroom practice in order to drive a professional development agenda and facilitate change. This process will look different from classroom to classroom and school to school.

  • ­ 15

    Who should use EduSnap?

    Researchers who want a fuller picture of what happens to children in schools

    Instructional coaches looking for specific and concrete ways to address instructional practice

    District personnel engaged in reform efforts

    Teacher educators helping pre-service teachers focus on research based practice




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